Methods of scientific research – there are ways that the student can solve the tasks of the project, to achieve the set objectives of the study. Many special scientific problems require the use of specialized private scientific research methods. They represent a certain set of methods, research techniques, knowledge of the principles that apply in a particular science.
In the introduction to the course introduction to the thesis, the student must transfer the methods of scientific research to the problem. For example, physics is characterized by physical modeling. In biology, there are bioindication methods that provide a direct observation of the behavior of organisms that evaluate their properties.
Along with the special techniques used and the general methods used throughout the research process to create a variety of sciences. They are divided into theory and practice. Practical or empirical method allows you to capture and describe the phenomena, facts and connections between them. Using the theoretical method, a detailed analysis of the various facts is performed, revealed significant patterns of mental models used to be hypothesized.
Theoretical methods of scientific research in the thesis
Theoretical methods of abstract and generalized. Thanks to them, systematized facts material. On the order of the theoretical methods unsurpassed are axiomatic, formalization method, hypothetical abstraction and general logical methods. Through the general logic, the incomparable analysis, cognitive synthesis, include necessary deduction and analogy.
The analysis allows us to decompose the material in the unit, investigating the individual parts of the elements. Synthesis connects parts to a whole, new individual, new interactive of the individual parts. Simulation introduces real object in the generated model. A classification distributes information by comparison. The deduction organizes the necessary transition from the general to the particular phenomena. Analogically leads to logical conclusion, because of which the knowledge of a subject arise on the basis of similarities with such objects.
Abstraction allows the researcher to mentally escape the desired characteristics of the phenomenon. At the same time, interesting properties of the object. Generalization specifies the general properties of the object and its attributes. Idealization is directed at the formation of abstract objects which do not exist in reality. But induction is from a single event to an entire presentation study.
Systematic approach explores objects and places them in the form of certain systems. Structural and functional methods have a holistic structure. Probabilistic and statistical approaches take into account the actions of the various random factors on the process.
The most important methods of theoretical knowledge refers to formalization shows essential knowledge in a particular semantic-symbolic content. It is in the processes Algorithmisierunggrundlagen of the programming. The axiomatic method is based on the postulates, axioms and the remaining claims of them to follow a logical approach to the evidence-based. Hypothetical-deductive method creates a unique system deductively intertwined with each other right hypotheses. From further the consent of the experimental facts exposed.
The method of ascent from the abstract to the concrete is in the dynamics of scientific thinking in the initial abstraction begins and through the successive stages of the extension and deepening of the knowledge to the desired result. Thus object the generated image to play integral theory.
Empirical methods of scientific research
Empirical methods enable us to examine the practice and the results. On the basis of the specific facts collected, identified and described phenomena. They are classified as indispensable method of observation, qualitative comparison, accurate measurement and unique experiment.
Monitoring – a process that is characterized by active and informative. It is based on the senses, the subject of human activity, is considered the simplest. The observations lead to results based on desire, will, and feelings. Observations inform about the relationship and characteristics of certain existing real phenomena, objects.
Compare contributes to building similarities, differences of phenomena, objects. Comparing sets of similarity of objects and their differences identify identified common repeats.
The measurement determines the numerical value of the unknown set in its units. The procedure makes it possible to obtain information about the world naitochneyshie.
Thanks to the intervention of the experiment, the phenomena of action, the origin of goods, are found in the present conditions. The experiment reproduces them in a particular hand, the experimenter created for research purposes.
The selection of research methods for the course (diploma) carried out on the following criteria:
- Methods should be adequate to the subject and object of the study, its objectives and the collected materials.
- They must comply with the principles of the m odern scientific research.
- To be predictive, thus scientifically founded. The researcher must be quite sure that the selected methods will give them reliable new results.
- The methods must comply with the logic of a comprehensive review and be linked with others.