How do you punctuate et al?
Punctuation. The “al” in “et al.” is always followed by a period. This is because the term is an abbreviation of the Latin phrase “et alia”—the period indicates that it is an abbreviation: et al.
Is there a comma before et al Harvard?
“Et al.” is a Latin term and the short form of “et alia”, which literally means ”and others”. It is used in academic citations for sources that have multiple authors. The ”al” in “et al.” is always followed by a full stop. Other punctuation marks, such as a comma, can follow the full stop after ”al”.
Do you italicize et al?
Once an in-text citation has been mentioned one time, all subsequent citations to a work with three or more authors should consist of the surname of the first author followed by et al. 3. Many writers use et al. However, it should not be italicized when you are using it as part of a reference.
Can you use et al in an email greeting?
The expression et al., which is always followed by a period, stands for “and others.” So the greetings above would mean: Dear John and others, Hello, Kimia and others. The use of et al. is not standard in greetings, so people will stumble over it, wondering whether they missed an important new rule somewhere.
Do you use periods in et al?
Use a period if the abbreviation is a Latin abbreviation or a reference abbreviation: etc., et al., e.g., a.m.
Can you text et al?
The abbreviation “et al.” (meaning “and others”) is used to shorten in-text citations with three or more authors. Here’s how it works: Only include the first author’s last name, followed by “et al.”, a comma and the year of publication, for example (Taylor et al., 2018).
How do you Harvard cite et al?
In the citation, if a source has three or more authors, the name of the first author should be given, followed by the phrase “et al.” Example citations: It was emphasised that citations in a text should be consistent (Jones et al., 2011).
Can I use et al in an email?
The expression et al., which is always followed by a period, stands for “and others.” So the greetings above would mean: Dear John and others, Hello, Kimia and others.
How does et al work?
means and others. It is used when citing an item that has multiple authors. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all the authors the first time the reference occurs, but in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al.
Which is correct’et al’or’et alia’?
The “al” in “et al.” is always followed by a period because the period shows that it is the abbreviated form of the term ‘‘et alia.’’. Thus, the following forms are not correct: ‘‘et al’’, ‘‘et. al’’, ‘‘et. al.’’. The proper use of the abbreviation is ‘‘et al.’’. ‘‘et al’’, ‘‘et. al’’, ‘‘et. al.’’.
When to use’et al’in an in intext citation?
The in-intext citation for works with three or more authors is now abbreviated right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”
When to add’et al’to a caption?
Add “et al.” to the caption after the named party to indicate that the case involves more than one plaintiff or more than one defendant. Do not add “et al.” to the caption if parties have been added or have intervened after the filing of the original pleadings.
When to use et al in MLA format?
In MLA style, always use “et al.” for sources with three or more authors. This applies both to in-text citations and in the Works Cited list. Smith, Joshua, and Robert Davies. …