How does neuroblastoma affect the eyes?

Eyes that bulge out and dark circles under the eyes, if the cancer has spread behind the eyes. Changes in the eyes, such as black eyes, a droopy eyelid, a pupil that is constricted, vision problems, or changes in the color of the iris.

What causes Proptosis in neuroblastoma?

Neuroblastoma originates in the adrenal medulla or the paraspinal sites where sympathetic nervous system tissue is present. Symptoms are due to a tumour mass or bone pain from metastases. Proptosis and periorbital ecchymosis (‘raccoon eyes’) are common and arise from retrobulbar metastases.

What are the manifestations of neuroblastoma?

Signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma vary with site of presentation. Generally, symptoms include abdominal pain, emesis, weight loss, anorexia, fatigue, and bone pain. Hypertension is an uncommon sign of the disease and is generally caused by renal artery compression, not catecholamine excess.

What does neuroblastoma look like?

Lumps or bumps under the skin, which may appear blue. Drooping eyelid and small pupil (the black area in the center of the eye) in one eye. Problems being able to feel or move parts of the body. Eyes that appear to bulge and/or bruising around the eyes.

How common is neuroblastoma in toddlers?

Neuroblastoma is rare, but it’s the most common cancer in babies. Every year in the United States, about 800 children are diagnosed with neuroblastoma.

What causes raccoon eyes in neuroblastoma?

Raccoon eyes or bilateral ecchymoses are a classic presentation of neuroblastoma, seen because of periorbital hemorrhage caused by orbital metastasis. However, raccoon eyes are most commonly caused by basal skull fractures or basilar head bleeds and should raise a red flag for child abuse.

How do I know if my child has neuroblastoma?

Symptoms include: Bump or lump in the neck, chest, pelvis or abdomen (belly), or several lumps just under the skin that may appear blue or purple (in infants). Bulging eyes or dark circles under eyes (it may look like the child has a black eye). Diarrhea, constipation, upset stomach or loss of appetite.

What causes rapid eye movements in neuroblastoma patients?

Opsoclonus (or saccadomania) is characterized by rapid, multidirectional saccadic eye movements with a high frequency (10-15 Hz) and large amplitude. In addition to neuroblastoma, other tumors of neural crest origin may cause this via a paraneoplastic etiology. Neurological deficits may remain even after treatment.

Is there such a thing as neuroblastoma opsoclonus?

Opsoclonus may exist individual or coexist with myoclonus (opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome). Opsoclonus is certainly not specific for neuroblastoma as it may be seen as a transient finding in normal infants and may occur, rarely, in some patients without associated neurological disease.

What are the signs and symptoms of neuroblastoma?

Additional signs on examination that may be suggestive of neuroblastoma include periorbital ecchymoses (“raccoon eyes”), which may occur in metastatic disease to the orbits. Neuroblastic tumors may also elaborate catecholamines, potentially leading to persistently elevated blood pressure.

Which is the most common initial sign of retinoblastoma?

The most common initial sign of retinoblastoma is leukocoria, where the light emanating through the pupil is white light reflecting off the tumor instead of red light reflecting off the retina.