How is HCC diagnosed?

Tests and procedures used to diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma include: Blood tests to measure liver function. Imaging tests, such as CT and MRI. Liver biopsy, in some cases, to remove a sample of liver tissue for laboratory testing.

What are the criteria for liver transplant?

Before you can begin the liver transplant evaluation process, you must be free of:

  • Cancer outside the liver.
  • Alcohol for at least 6 months.
  • Substance abuse.
  • Active infections.
  • Disabling psychiatric conditions.
  • Documented medical non-compliance.
  • Lack of adequate social support.
  • Lack of adequate insurance.

How aggressive is HCC?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy, resulting as the third cause of death by cancer each year. The management of patients with HCC is complex, as both the tumour stage and any underlying liver disease must be considered conjointly.

When should you suspect HCC?

Suspicion for HCC is raised when any lesion is recognized in US, particularly if it is more than 1 cm in size in the background of liver cirrhosis[47] (Figure ​ 1). Several studies assessed the diagnostic accuracy of US as a screening tool for early detection of HCC[48-51].

How does HCC develop?

This serious disease happens when liver cells are damaged and replaced with scar tissue. Many things can cause it: hepatitis B or C infection, alcohol drinking, certain drugs, and too much iron stored in the liver. Heavy drinking.

Who is not eligible for a liver transplant?

Aged 65 years or older with other serious illness. With severe organ disease due to diabetes. With severe obesity. With severe and active liver disease such as hepatitis B.

Does hepatocellular carcinoma spread fast?

Liver cancer can spread quickly depending on the type of cancer. Hemangiosarcoma and angiosarcoma types of liver cancer are fast spreading, whereas hepatocellular carcinoma spreads late in the disease.

How fast does HCC spread?

Question 5: how fast do tumors grow? The mean volume doubling time of small (,5 cm) HCCs ranges from 112 to 204 days; the interindividual variability of tumor growth is also very high, the individual doubling time ranging from 30 to 600 days (34–38).

How quickly does HCC progress?

The estimated time needed for a HCC to grow from 1 cm to 2 cm was 212 days in patients with HBV infection and 328 days in those with HCV infection.

What are the Milan criteria for HCC transplantation?

The Milan criteria, introduced by Mazzaferro in 1996, restrict transplantation in adults with HCC as follows: (1) single tumor diameter less than 5 cm; (2) not more than three foci of tumor, each one not exceeding 3 cm; (3) no angioinvasion; (4) no extrahepatic involvement.

What are the criteria for a liver transplant in Milan?

Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) being considered for orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). Originally developed by Mazzaferro and colleagues in Milan in 1996 to identify cirrhotic patients with early stage HCC likely to benefit from transplant. Widely validated.

How big does a tumor have to be to meet the Milan criteria?

The Milan criteria are: a solitary tumor not > than 5 cm, or less than three lesions, the largest being < 3 cm in size [43].

How big should a threshold Milan lesion be?

The threshold Milan criteria are as follows: one lesion smaller than 5 cm; alternatively, up to 3 lesions, each smaller than 3 cm.