Is zinc finger a protein motif?
A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions (Zn2+) in order to stabilize the fold. It was originally coined to describe the finger-like appearance of a hypothesized structure from the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) transcription factor IIIA.
What do zinc finger proteins do?
Zinc finger proteins are among the most abundant proteins in eukaryotic genomes. Their functions are extraordinarily diverse and include DNA recognition, RNA packaging, transcriptional activation, regulation of apoptosis, protein folding and assembly, and lipid binding.
Which protein contains a zinc finger domain?
Zinc finger domains are one of the most common structural motifs in eukaryotic cells, which employ the motif in some of their most important proteins (including TFIIIA, CTCF, and ZiF268). These DNA binding proteins contain up to 37 zinc finger domains connected by flexible linker regions.
What is the function of zinc finger nucleases?
Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are a class of engineered DNA-binding proteins that facilitate targeted editing of the genome by creating double-strand breaks in DNA at user-specified locations.
How do Zinc fingers recognize DNA?
Modular Recognition As you can see from these structures, the string of zinc fingers curls along the DNA or RNA strands, binding in the grooves and extending amino acids inwards to read the bases. A single zinc finger does not bind very tightly and can only recognize 2 or 3 base pairs.
What do zinc fingers interact with?
Zinc-finger proteins (ZNFs) are one of the most abundant groups of proteins and have a wide range of molecular functions. Given the wide variety of zinc-finger domains, ZNFs are able to interact with DNA, RNA, PAR (poly-ADP-ribose) and other proteins.
How does zinc finger work?
As you can see from these structures, the string of zinc fingers curls along the DNA or RNA strands, binding in the grooves and extending amino acids inwards to read the bases. A single zinc finger does not bind very tightly and can only recognize 2 or 3 base pairs.
Do proteins contain zinc?
In the past five years there has been a great expansion in our knowledge of the role of zinc in the structure and function of proteins. Not only is zinc required for essential catalytic functions in enzymes (more than 300 are known at present), but also it stabilizes and even induces the folding of protein subdomains.
Are zinc fingers transcription factors?
Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy.
How does a zinc atom help stabilize the zinc finger?
The zinc atom is simultaneously bound by the 2 cysteine and the 2 histidine side chains. DNA has a negatively-charged phosphate backbone. Therefore, the positively- charged arginine of the zinc finger can bind to DNA via an electrostatic interaction.
What causes zinc deficiency?
Zinc deficiency is characterized by growth retardation, loss of appetite, and impaired immune function. In more severe cases, zinc deficiency causes hair loss, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, hypogonadism in males, and eye and skin lesions [2,8,25,26].
Is zinc finger a secondary structure?
The “finger” refers to the secondary structures (α-helix and β-sheet) that are held together by the Zn ion. Zinc finger containing domains typically serve as interactors, binding DNA, RNA, proteins or small molecules (Laity et al., 2001).
How many base pairs does the zinc finger protein recognize?
Zinc finger protein (ZFP) is a common DNA binding domain found in many transcription factors. It consists of ∼30 amino acids that may recognize three base pairs of DNA. Combining 3–6 ZFP in a molecule, it can recognize and bind to a specific DNA into the genome.
Where does the tip of the zinc finger stick?
The tip of the finger sticks into the DNA major groove, where it contacts three bases. Most zinc finger proteins contain multiple fingers, allowing longer sequences to be recognized to increase specificity. A related structure is present in the steroid hormone receptor family, although in this case,…
How are zinc finger proteins used in cancer progression?
Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. Abstract. Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy.
Which is a DNA binding motif of the zinc finger?
The zinc finger is one of the most important DNA-binding motifs found first in TFIIIA and subsequently in various other proteins including transcription factors such as SP1 (GC-box binding protein), GLI (human glioblastoma protein), Zif268, and a subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors.