What are the 4 types of ventricular septal defect?

There are four basic types of VSD:

  • Membranous VSD. An opening in a particular area of the upper section of the ventricular septum (an area called the membranous septum), near the valves.
  • Muscular VSD.
  • Atrioventricular canal type VSD.
  • Conal septal VSD.

What is post MI VSD?

Post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (post-MI VSD) is an increasingly rare complication of myocardial infarction. Most commonly, it develops within a few days after a transmural MI involving the septum. Mortality associated with the complication remains high.

Can ECG detect VSD?

Doctors may use this test to diagnose a ventricular septal defect and determine its size, location and severity. It may also be used to see if there are any other heart problems. Echocardiography can be used on a fetus (fetal echocardiography). Electrocardiogram (ECG).

How is ventricular septal rupture diagnosed?

Two-dimensional echocardiography with Doppler is used to diagnose ventricular septal rupture, which shows blood flow across the ventricular septum. [7] Echocardiogram also demonstrates right ventricular dilatation and pulmonary hypertension due to increased right-sided blood flow.

What is the most common type of ventricular septal defect?

Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect This is a hole in the lower, muscular part of the ventricular septum and is the most common type of ventricular septal defect.

What causes a ventricular septal defect?

The most common cause of a VSD is a congenital heart defect, which is a defect from birth. Some people are born with holes already present in their heart. They may cause no symptoms and take years to diagnose. A rare cause of a VSD is severe blunt trauma to the chest.

What are the mechanical complications of MI?

Importance Mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction include left ventricular free-wall rupture, ventricular septal rupture, papillary muscle rupture, pseudoaneurysm, and true aneurysm.

What is ventricular septal rupture?

Ventricular septal rupture results from full thickness infarction of the interventricular septum followed by sufficient necrosis to result in the septal rupture. It is one of the three mechanical complications that can occur following myocardial infarction.

When do VSD symptoms start?

Signs and symptoms of serious heart defects often appear during the first few days, weeks or months of a child’s life. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) symptoms in a baby may include: Poor eating, failure to thrive. Fast breathing or breathlessness.

Can VSD go away?

VSDs are usually found in the first few months of life by a doctor during a routine checkup. Most teens born with a VSD probably don’t remember having it because it either goes away on its own or it was found so early in childhood that there’s no memory of any surgery or recovery.

What happens if the septum ruptures?

Patients who have ventricular septal rupture have severe heart failure or cardiogenic shock, with a pansystolic murmur and a parasternal thrill. The hallmark finding is a left-to-right intracardiac shunt (“step-up” in oxygen saturation from right atrium to right ventricle).

What happens in ventricular septal defect?

In babies with a ventricular septal defect, blood often flows from the left ventricle through the ventricular septal defect to the right ventricle and into the lungs. This extra blood being pumped into the lungs forces the heart and lungs to work harder.

What causes a septal defect on an electrocardiogram?

This defect may be single or multiple and of varying size and shape. It may also be associated with other cardiac anomalies such as tetralogy of Fallot, persistent truncus arteriosus, transposition of the great vessels or the common atrioventricular canal, or may also occur in isolation.

How many VSD occur in the right ventricle?

Outlet defects represent 5% to 7% of all VSD, although this incidence is increasing in the Asian population where it can reach 30%. Outlet defects open into the right ventricle outlet between the limbs of the septal band, just below the pulmonary valve 3.

What are the signs of a biventricular septal defect?

Patients with a severe interventricular septal defect often have electrocardiographic signs of biventricular hypertrophy, with high QRS and diphasic complexes in the midprecordial leads (V2, V3 and V4), alterations also known as Katz-Wachtel phenomenon or sign.

How does the left ventricle affect the electrocardiogram?

The extra blood supply to the right ventricle from the left ventricle causes increased lung flow, which results in left atrial enlargement and left ventricular hypertrophy. The electrocardiogram varies depending on the impact of the defect.