What causes petechiae in meningitis?
The bacteria may seed local sites such as the meninges, joints or the pericardium or multiply in the bloodstream, causing meningococcemia with petechiae. Upto one third of patients present with meningitis without signs of sepsis.
What is the cause of meningococcal meningitis?
Bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis cause meningococcal disease. About 1 in 10 people have these bacteria in the back of their nose and throat without being ill. This is called being ‘a carrier’. Sometimes the bacteria invade the body and cause certain illnesses, which are known as meningococcal disease.
What is the death rate of meningococcal meningitis?
The overall case-fatality ratio of meningococcal disease is 10% to 15%, even with appropriate antibiotic therapy, and can be higher in persons with meningococcemia. As many as 20% of survivors have permanent sequelae, such as hearing loss, neurologic damage, or loss of a limb.
How is meningococcal meningitis diagnosed?
Diagnosis. Initial diagnosis of meningococcal meningitis can be made by clinical examination followed by a lumbar puncture showing a purulent spinal fluid. The bacteria can sometimes be seen in microscopic examinations of the spinal fluid.
What is the glass test for meningitis?
The glass test is a really useful way of spotting suspected meningitis. If your child has a cluster of red or purple spots, press the side of a clear drinking glass firmly against the rash. In this example the spots are still visible through the glass. This is called a non-blanching rash – it does not fade.
What is the mortality rate of spinal meningitis?
One large study of adults with community-acquired bacterial meningitis reported an overall mortality rate of 21%, including a 30% mortality rate associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and a 7% mortality rate for Neisseria meningitidis (2). In adults, the most commonly identified organisms are S.
What time of year is meningitis most common?
The mean timing of disease activity had a latitudinal trend, with bacterial meningitis seasons peaking during the winter months in countries in both the northern and southern hemispheres.
What are the hallmark signs and symptoms of meningococcal meningitis?
Symptoms may include:
- Fever and chills.
- Fatigue (feeling tired)
- Cold hands and feet.
- Severe aches or pain in the muscles, joints, chest, or abdomen (belly)
- Rapid breathing.
- In the later stages, a dark purple rash (see photos)