What do microglia cells do in the CNS?

Microglia cells are the immune cells of the central nervous system and consequently play important roles in brain infections and inflammation. Recent in vivo imaging studies have revealed that in the resting healthy brain, microglia are highly dynamic, moving constantly to actively survey the brain parenchyma.

What are the macrophages in the CNS?

Microglia are the only macrophage population in the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma, where they can interact with neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (not shown).

What are macrophages and microglia?

As a resident macrophage population, microglia are critical components in the establishment and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. They not only purge damaged or unnecessary neurons and synapses, but also act as the primary form of active immune defense against infectious and stress-derived agents.

What do astrocytes do in the CNS?

Astrocytes are the most numerous cell type within the central nervous system (CNS) and perform a variety of tasks, from axon guidance and synaptic support, to the control of the blood brain barrier and blood flow.

Are astrocytes in the CNS or PNS?

Neuroglia in the CNS include astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells and oligodendrocytes. Neuroglia in the PNS include Schwann cells and satellite cells. Astrocytes support and brace the neurons and anchor them to their nutrient supply lines.

Are microglia in the CNS or PNS?

Whereas microglia are recognized as fundamental players in central nervous system (CNS) development and function, much less is known about macrophages of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

Is brain a part of nervous system?

The brain and the spinal cord are the central nervous system. The nerves that go through the whole body make up the peripheral nervous system.

Are macrophages found in the liver?

Macrophages, the most abundant liver immune cells, play a critical role in maintaining hepatic homeostasis and the underlying mechanisms of liver diseases. Hepatic macrophages consist of resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KCs), and monocyte-derived macrophages (MoMϕs).

Are there different types of microglia?

According to their shape, microglial cells have been categorized into three broadly distinct subtypes: compact, longitudinally branched and radially branched (Lawson et al., 1990). These morphologies are closely related to their functional state (Davis et al., 1994).

What is the most important function of the astrocyte?

Astrocytes play the most important role in the regulation of extracellular ionic concentration around the neurons. The concentration of various ions in the extracellular fluid controls the nerve impulse generation and transmission in the neurons.

How are macrophages and microglia implicated in CNS disorders?

Innate immune responses, particularly activation of macrophages and microglia, are increasingly implicated in CNS disorders. It is now appreciated that the heterogeneity of functions adopted by these cells dictates neuropathophysiology. Research efforts to characterize the range of pro-inflammatory …

Which is a macrophage in the central nervous system?

Macrophages are major cell types of the immune system, and they comprise both tissue-resident populations and circulating monocyte-derived subsets. Here, we discuss microglia, the resident macrophage within the central nervous system (CNS), and CNS-infiltrating macrophages.

How are microglia distributed in the adult brain?

Microglia are ubiquitously distributed in the adult CNS, but their distribution is not uniform. In the rodent brain, their density varies from regions with a high density, for example, the substantia nigra, to a low density, such as the molecular layer of the cerebellum; the fibre tracts also have a low density [47].

How are microglia involved in the removal of synapses?

The notion that microglia are actively involved in the removal of synapses from their postsynaptic targets has a long history, and it was first invoked as a response by microglia in the removal of synapses from damaged or injured neurons, so-called synaptic stripping.