What is abnormal capnogram?

A commonly seen abnormal capnogram results when the patient makes spontaneous respiratory efforts and inhales before the next mechanical inspiration. This characteristic cleft in the alveolar plateau is a useful clinical sign indicating that the patient has started to breathe (Figure 24-7).

What does the capnography waveform represent?

Waveform capnography represents the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled air, which assesses ventilation. It consists of a number and a graph. The number is capnometry, which is the partial pressure of CO2 detected at the end of exhalation. This is end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) which is normally 35-45 mm Hg.

How does capnogram waveform change during inspiration?

During inspiration, CO2 is essentially zero and thus inspiration is displayed at the zero baseline. Phase 1 occurs as exhalation begins, which is shown as A to B on the capnogram. The End Tidal CO2 value displayed on the monitor is considered the value taken at end exhalation.

What causes high etc02?

In severe cases of respiratory distress, increased effort to breathe does not effectively eliminate CO2. This causes CO2 to accumulate in the lungs and more of it to be excreted with each breath (hypercapnea), which would cause the ETCO2 level to rise.

What is normal EtCO2?

End-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) monitoring is a noninvasive technique which measures the partial pressure or maximal concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the end of an exhaled breath, which is expressed as a percentage of CO2 or mmHg. The normal values are 5% to 6% CO2, which is equivalent to 35-45 mmHg.

What EtCO2 confirms adequate ventilation?

Teams should aim for EtCO2 at least >10 mm Hg and ideally >20 mm Hg. Where do these numbers come from? These values are approximately 1/4 the normal EtCO2 (35-45 mm Hg), and ideal CPR will provide at least 1/4 of cardiac output. This is an example of capnography during CPR.

What is the purpose of capnography?

Capnography is a non-invasive measurement during inspiration and expiration of the partial pressure of CO2 from the airway. It provides physiologic information on ventilation, perfusion, and metabolism, which is important for airway management.

What ETCO2 confirms adequate ventilation?

What is normal ETCO2?

How do you fix high ETCO2?

The simplest way to correct high ETCO2 is to simply ventilate (“bag”) the animal more frequently. Low ETCO2 levels are most commonly a result of hyperventilation or diluted exhaled carbon dioxide caused by high oxygen flow rates such as those used with non-rebreathing systems.

Why is my blood CO2 low?

A low CO2 level can be a sign of several conditions, including: Kidney disease. Diabetic ketoacidosis, which happens when your body’s blood acid level goes up because it doesn’t have enough insulin to digest sugars. Metabolic acidosis, which means your body makes too much acid.

What are the phases of a normal capnography waveform?

The normal capnography waveform. The main determinants of ETCO2 include alveolar ventilation, pulmonary perfusion, and CO2 production. A normal waveform has four different phases: Phase I is the inspiratory baseline, which is due to inspired gas with low levels of CO2. Phase II is the beginning of expiration which occurs when

What does a waveform capnography mean for COPD?

After caring for an ankle sprain and beginning the workup of a patient with chest pain, you again reassess the patient with COPD. You notice a steadily increasing EtCO2 baseline in your COPD patient. The waveform reflects an elevation of baseline, as well as the plateau, indicating incomplete exhalation.

What does normal mean in end tidal capnography?

Proper means that you should know the normal readings for quantity, rate, shape and trending of EtCO 2. In this case, normal means what we find in a healthy person with no metabolism, ventilation or perfusion problems.

What causes rebreathing in a waveform capnography?

The CO2 is not being appropriately removed. This is often due to insufficient expiratory time, inadequate inspiratory flow, or faulty expiratory valve. Rebreathing can also appear with the following waveform with baseline elevation, which is due to inadequate exchange of CO2.