What is electron affinity in periodic table?
The electron affinity of an atom or molecule is the propensity for that particle to gain an electron. This is an exothermic process for all non-noble gas elements. Electron affinity generally increases across a period in the periodic table and sometimes decreases down a group.
Why does group 17 have the highest electron affinity?
Chlorine and Electron Affinity Fluorine is a small atom with a small amount of space available in its 2p orbital. Therefore, chlorine has a higher electron affinity than fluorine, and this orbital structure causes it to have the highest electron affinity of all of the elements.
In which parts of the table do you find the highest electron affinity?
1. Where is electron affinity highest on the periodic table? Electron affinity increases towards the top of the periodic table and towards the right. Thus, the top right elements (except for the noble gases) have the highest electron affinities – the greatest energy released when an electron is added.
Does electron affinity increase down group 17?
Since the atomic size increases down the group, electron affinity generally decreases (At < I < Br < F < Cl). An electron will not be as attracted to the nucleus, resulting in a low electron affinity. However, fluorine has a lower electron affinity than chlorine.
Which group has the strongest electron affinity?
Chlorine has the highest electron affinity while mercury has the lowest. Electron affinity generally increases across a period (row) in the periodic table, due to the filling of the valence shell of the atom.
Which group has the greatest electron affinity?
Thus, nonmetals have a higher electron affinity than metals, meaning they are more likely to gain electrons than atoms with a lower electron affinity. For example, nonmetals like the elements in the halogens series in Group 17 have a higher electron affinity than the metals.
What happens if you add or take away a proton?
If you add or subtract a proton from the nucleus, you create a new element. If you add or subtract a neutron from the nucleus, you create a new isotope of the same element you started with. In a neutral atom, the number of positively charged protons in the nucleus is equal to the number of orbiting electrons.
What is meant by electron affinity?
1 : the degree to which an atom or molecule attracts additional electrons. 2 : the minimum energy required to remove an electron from a negative ion to produce a neutral atom or molecule.
What does electron affinity mean on the periodic table?
Electron affinity (EA) or electron gain enthalpy or simply affinity in the periodic table defines the amount of energy released when an electron is added to an isolated neutral gaseous atom in its lowest energy level (ground state) to produce an anion.
What is the relationship between EA and electron affinity?
Just as with ionization energy, subsequent EA values are associated with forming ions with more charge. The second EA is the energy associated with adding an electron to an anion to form a –2 ion, and so on. Figure 3.4. 1: This version of the periodic table displays the electron affinity values (in kJ/mol) for selected elements.:
What is the energy released in the first electron affinity?
Defining first electron affinity The first electron affinity is the energy released when 1 mole of gaseous atoms each acquire an electron to form 1 mole of gaseous 1- ions. This is more easily seen in symbol terms. It is the energy released (per mole of X) when this change happens.
Are there trends in electron affinity and metallic character?
For both IE and electron affinity data, there are exceptions to the trends when dealing with completely filled or half-filled subshells. Metallic character increases from right to left across periods on the periodic table and down columns.