What is Flocculation in mineral processing?

Flocculation is a two-step particle aggregation process in which a large number of small particles form a small number large flocs. Step 1: Coagulation. Small particles usually carry negative surface charges that hinder aggregation and settling (1a).

What are the four main types of mineral processing?

Mineral processing can involve four general types of unit operation: comminution – particle size reduction; sizing – separation of particle sizes by screening or classification; concentration by taking advantage of physical and surface chemical properties; and dewatering – solid/liquid separation.

What is mineral processing in mining?

Mineral processing, art of treating crude ores and mineral products in order to separate the valuable minerals from the waste rock, or gangue. It is the first process that most ores undergo after mining in order to provide a more concentrated material for the procedures of extractive metallurgy.

What chemicals are used in the mining industry?

Raw materials such as cyanide, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, uranium, mercury, and lead are used for the manufacturing of mining chemicals. These chemicals are toxic and harmful to human & the environment.

What makes a good flocculant?

Polymers are useful as flocculants because they are robust molecules and sometimes carry charges. Because they are so large, small particles can get trapped in the curves of the polymer causing them to accumulate a mass heavy enough to prevent their retention in solution.

Why is flocculation important?

Flocculation is a process by which a chemical coagulant added to the water acts to facilitate bonding between particles, creating larger aggregates which are easier to separate. The method is widely used in water treatment plants and can also be applied to sample processing for monitoring applications.

What are the main objectives of mineral processing?

The objective of mineral processing is to render mineral resources beneficial to the modern life of the humankind. Mineral resources occur as a textual intergrowth of various mineral components, and as extracted from the ore body, they are not useful as they are.

Where does mineral processing usually begin?

Where does mineral processing usually begin? at the mining site. The acid and the metals it causes to leach from rock that seep into the ground water or enter streams or lakes as runoff.

What are the advantages of mineral processing?

Advantages of mineral processing : 1-Processed minerals when processed by leaching or smelting the consumption of energy is less. 2- If an ore contain more than one valuable mineral objective of the mineral processing is to separate the minerals . or it help in separating impurities .

Why are so many toxic chemicals used in mining?

Toxic chemicals are used in the Flotation Process to separate the copper and molybdenum out of the milled powder. This Flotation process is the major extraction method at Duval/Sierrita mine because of the poor quality of the copper at this site.

Which chemical is used in gold industry?

Toxic sodium cyanide has been used in gold mining since 1887, and it remains the primary reagent in use for gold processing today because it allows for efficient extraction of gold from low-grade ore.

Is alum a coagulant or flocculant?

Aluminum sulfate (alum) is the most common coagulant used for water purification. Other chemicals, such as ferric sulfate or sodium aluminate, may also be used. Coagulation is usually accomplished in two stages: rapid mixing and slow mixing.

When to use flocculation in a filtration process?

Flocculation is utilized in such conditions where materials need to be efficiently separated prior to filtration or another method of harvest. Applying flocculation ensures a high flux over filtration units as well as efficient and cost effective separation of cell material from supernatant.

How are coagulation and flocculation used in groundwater?

Coagulation and Flocculation Groundwater and surface water contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density.

Why is flocculation an important unit of production?

Flocculation is an important unit operation, which needs to be developed and optimized to run cost effectively. Whether the objective is to flocculate cells fragments, suspended particle matter, fibers and fillers, or precious metals, the steps to develop efficient flocculation processes are very similar.

What happens at the point of optimal flocculation?

Beyond the point of optimal flocculation the shear of the stirrer starts to destroy the flocs, large counts decrease and small counts increase again. Understanding flocculation particle mechanisms helps to identify root causes of suboptimal process performance, downstream production challenges, and out-of-specification products.