What is the mechanism of spasticity?

Physiologically spasticity is defined as a motor disorder characterized by a velocity dependent increase in the tonic stretch reflexes (muscle tone) with exaggerated tendon jerks, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflexes as one component of the upper motor neuron (UMN) syndrome (Lance, 1980).

What are the four types of hypertonia?

There are two main types of hypertonia:

  • Spastic hypertonia: This type of hypertonia causes the body to have random and uncontrollable muscle spasms. The spasms can affect one or multiple muscle groups throughout the body.
  • Dystonic hypertonia: This type is associated with muscle rigidity and lack of flexibility.

Why do muscles become hypertonic?

Hypertonia can be caused by injury to the central nervous system or spinal cord causing disturbances in the nerve pathways that are responsible for muscle tone. Symptoms of hypertonia include loss of function, decreased range of movement, deformity and muscle stiffness.

What causes hypertonia in UMN lesions?

Hypertonia is caused by upper motor neuron lesions which may result from injury, disease, or conditions that involve damage to the central nervous system. The lack of or decrease in upper motor neuron function leads to loss of inhibition with resultant hyperactivity of lower motor neurons.

What is difference between spasticity and rigidity?

Rigidity – The state of stiffness, inflexibility and inability to bend. Spasticity commonly affects muscles of legs and arms, neck. Eyelids, face, and vocal chords. It can be also said that spasticity involves only one muscle group i.e. Flexors.

Is hypertonia curable?

Can Hypertonia Be Cured? The prognosis depends on the cause and severity of hypertonia. If hypertonia is associated with cerebral palsy, it may persist for the person’s lifetime. If hypertonia is caused by a disease of the central nervous system, it may worsen when the underlying disease worsens.

How is hypertonia diagnosed?

CT scans or MRI scans – these detailed scans can be used to detect any nervous system damage or abnormalities. an electroencephalogram (EEG) – a painless test that records brain activity using small electrodes placed on the scalp.

Is Hypertonia curable?

How can I reduce Hypertonia?

Treatment interventions for upper limb hypertonicity include stretching, splinting, strengthening of antagonist muscles, oral medications, and focal injections (phenol or botulinum toxins). Intrathecal baclofen may also impact upper limb tone.

What is the meaning of Hypertonia?

Definition. Hypertonia is a condition in which there is too much muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move. Muscle tone is regulated by signals that travel from the brain to the nerves and tell the muscle to contract.

What are the types of rigidity?

There are two types of rigidity: lead pipe and cogwheel. Lead pipe rigidity is defined as a constant resistance to motion throughout the entire range of movement. Cogwheel rigidity refers to resistance that stops and starts as the limb is moved through its range of motion.

What’s the difference between hypotonia and hypertonia?

Hypertonia and hypotonia are two very similar words that have opposite meanings. Both words relate to problems with someone’s muscle tone, with the term “tonia” literally meaning “muscle tension”. When we use the muscles in our body, we are repeatedly stretching and contracting them as we move.

What happens to your muscles when you have hypertonia?

Impaired ability of damaged motor neurons to regulate descending pathways gives rise to disordered spinal reflexes, increased excitability of muscle spindles, and decreased synaptic inhibition. These consequences result in abnormally increased muscle tone of symptomatic muscles.

What does it mean when you have spastic hypertonia?

Spastic hypertonia involves uncontrollable muscle spasms, stiffening or straightening out of muscles, shock-like contractions of all or part of a group of muscles, and abnormal muscle tone.

How is hypertonia related to central nervous system damage?

A damaged central nervous system cannot communicate properly to the motor pathways, making the body unable to control its muscle tone and reflexes. Hypertonia is closely associated with birth injuries, such as an injury to the head or lack of oxygen while traveling down the birth canal.