What is the most effective diagnostic exam for schistosomiasis?

Examination of stool and/or urine for ova is the primary method of diagnosis for suspected schistosome infections.

What is the confirmatory test for schistosomiasis?

Diagnosis. Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through the detection of parasite eggs in stool or urine specimens. Antibodies and/or antigens detected in blood or urine samples are also indications of infection.

What is the importance of the prevalence of schistosomiasis?

Schistosomiasis is an important cause of disease in many parts of the world, most commonly in places with poor sanitation. School-age children who live in these areas are often most at risk because they tend to spend time swimming or bathing in water containing infectious cercariae.

What is the pathology of schistosomiasis?

Schistosomiasis is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. Antigens released from the egg stimulate a granulomatous reaction involving T cells, macrophages, and eosinophils that results in clinical disease (see the image below).

What are the signs and symptoms of schistosomiasis?

Within 1-2 months of infection, symptoms may develop including fever, chills, cough, and muscle aches. Without treatment, schistosomiasis can persist for years. Signs and symptoms of chronic schistosomiasis include: abdominal pain, enlarged liver, blood in the stool or blood in the urine, and problems passing urine.

What are the characteristics of Schistosoma Haematobium?

Schistosoma haematobium is pathogenic to humans and causes blood in the and urine and sometimes in the stool. Persons affected by S. haematobium may also develop cough, fever, skin inflammation, and tenderness of the liver because the spined eggs attach to vital organs and cause tissue degeneration.

How are serological approaches for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis?

Serological diagnosis is valuable for schistosomiasis control in low endemicity settings and for travel medicine. The establishment of a sensitive and specific gold standard could facilitate future evaluation studies. Schistosomiasis is a common disease in endemic areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and Asia.

How often should urine be taken for schistosomiasis?

To increase the sensitivity of stool and urine examination, three samples should be collected on different days. For S. haematobium, presence of hematuria can suggest infection but this test is more useful for population studies in Africa and is not sufficiently sensitive or specific for individual patient diagnosis.

Where can you find schistosomiasis in the world?

Schistosomiasis (sometimes called bilharziasis), an endemic parasitic tropical disease found especially in sub-Saharan Africa, causes substantial morbidity and mortality. In developed countries, the disease is typically seen in nonimmune travelers returning from endemic areas.

How long does it take to recover from schistosomiasis?

Although a single course of treatment is usually curative, the immune response in lightly infected patients may be less robust, and repeat treatment may be needed after 2 to 4 weeks to increase effectiveness.