## What is the orthogonality relations of the associated Legendre polynomial?

To demonstrate orthogonality of the associated Legendre polynomials, we use a result from the theory of orthogonal polynomials. Namely, a Legendre polynomial of order l is orthogonal to any polynomial Πp of order p lower than l. In bra-ket notation: ⟨Πp|Pl⟩=0 if O(Πp)≡p

## How do you find a polynomial with Legendre?

The associated Legendre functions are given by two integer indices Pnm (x). For positive m these are related to the Legendre polynomials by the formula, (6.29) P n m ( x ) = ( − 1 ) m ( 1 − x 2 ) m / 2 d m d x m p n ( x ) .

**What is associated Legendre differential equation?**

Legendre’s Differential Equation. Any differential equation of the form. y (x) + p(x)y (x) + q(x)y(x) = r(x) with p(x), q(x), r(x) analytic can be solved by the power series method. An important special case is.

### Are Legendre polynomials real?

In physical science and mathematics, Legendre polynomials (named after Adrien-Marie Legendre, who discovered them in 1782) are a system of complete and orthogonal polynomials, with a vast number of mathematical properties, and numerous applications.

### What is generating function of Legendre polynomial?

The Legendre polynomials can be alternatively given by the generating function ( 1 − 2 x z + z 2 ) − 1 / 2 = ∑ n = 0 ∞ P n ( x ) z n , but there are other generating functions.

**Can zero be a polynomial?**

A polynomial having value zero (0) is known as zero polynomial. Actually, the term 0 is itself zero polynomial. It is a constant polynomial whose all the coefficients are equal to 0.

#### What is Legendre polynomial equation?

Legendre’s polynomial of degree n, denoted Pn(x), is a solution (there are two) to the differential equation. ( 1 − x 2 ) y ″ ( x ) − 2 x y ′ ( x ) + n ( n + 1 ) y ( x ) = 0 , − 1 < x < 1. where n is a nonnegative integer.

#### Are Legendre polynomials odd functions?

One of the varieties of special functions which are encountered in the solution of physical problems is the class of functions called Legendre polynomials. The polynomials are either even or odd functions of x for even or odd orders n. The first few polynomials are shown below.

**Why are orthogonal polynomials important?**

Just as Fourier series provide a convenient method of expanding a periodic function in a series of linearly independent terms, orthogonal polynomials provide a natural way to solve, expand, and interpret solutions to many types of important differential equations.

## Why do we use Legendre equations?

For example, Legendre and Associate Legendre polynomials are widely used in the determination of wave functions of electrons in the orbits of an atom [3], [4] and in the determination of potential functions in the spherically symmetric geometry [5], etc.

## Why are associated Legendre polynomials called Legendre functions?

Dong and Lemus (2002) generalized the derivation of this formula to integrals over a product of an arbitrary number of associated Legendre polynomials. These functions may actually be defined for general complex parameters and argument: They are called the Legendre functions when defined in this more general way.

**When is the Legendre ordinary differential equation encountered?**

In that case the parameters are usually labelled with Greek letters. The Legendre ordinary differential equation is frequently encountered in physics and other technical fields. In particular, it occurs when solving Laplace’s equation (and related partial differential equations) in spherical coordinates.

### Which is fully general class of Legendre functions?

The fully general class of functions with arbitrary real or complex values of ℓ and m are Legendre functions. In that case the parameters are usually labelled with Greek letters. The Legendre ordinary differential equation is frequently encountered in physics and other technical fields.