What causes cell damage?

In principle, cell injury can occur due to the following factors: Excessive or overly prolonged normal stimuli. Action of toxins and other adverse influences that could inhibit the vital cell functions (e.g., oxidative phosphorylation or protein synthesis) Deficiency of oxygen and/or essential nutrients and metabolites.

Which is the single most common cause of cellular injury?

Oxygen Deprivation Hypoxia is a deficiency of oxygen that can result in a reduction in aerobic oxidative respiration. Extremely important common cause of cell injury/cell death. Causes include reduced blood flow (ischemia), inadequate oxygenation of the blood, decreased blood oxygen-carrying capacity.

What are the causes of reversible cell injury?

Reversible cell injury I Pathology

  • Reversible Cell Injury By Harshit Jadav.
  • Cell Injury • Ischemia and hypoxia are the most common forms of cell injury • Ischemia is insufficient blood flow to provide adequate oxygenation.

What are the types of cell injury?

Types of cell injury

  • Cellular swelling due to water influx (earliest manifestation of cell injury)
  • Hydropic change or vacuolar degeneration: small, clear vacuoles within the cytoplasm (from distended ER)
  • Plasma membrane alterations (blebbing, blunting, loss of microvilli)

Can cell damage be reversed?

Types of damage. Some cell damage can be reversed once the stress is removed or if compensatory cellular changes occur. Full function may return to cells but in some cases, a degree of injury will remain.

How do you repair damaged cells?

Like Apollo 13, a damaged cell cannot rely on anyone to fix it. It must repair itself, first by stopping the loss of cytoplasm, and then regenerate by rebuilding structures that were damaged or lost. Understanding how they repair and regenerate themselves could guide treatments for conditions involving cellular damage.

What are the signs of irreversible cell injury?


  • cellular swelling.
  • nuclear chromatin clumping.
  • ribosomal detachment. secondary to decreased protein synthesis.
  • membrane blebbing.
  • fatty change.

What is the difference between reversible and irreversible cell injury?

When cells are injured, one of two patterns will generally result: reversible cell injury leading to adaptation of the cells and tissue, or irreversible cell injury leading to cell death and tissue damage. When cells adapt to injury, their adaptive changes can be atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, or metaplasia.

What is an example of reversible cell injury?

Morphological changes of reversible cell injury occur earlier than those of irreversible injury. Example:Myocardial infarction due to blockade of a coronary artery. – Light microscopic changes of cell death :in 4 to 12 hours. Difficult to see in individual cells, easier to realize in the whole organ.

What are the signs of reversible cell injury?

The ultrastructural changes of reversible cell injury include:

  • Blebbing.
  • Blunting.
  • distortion of microvilli.
  • loosening of intercellular attachments.
  • mitochondrial changes.
  • dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum.

What is the most common type of cell injury?

Hypoxia is the most important cause of cell injury. Irreversible cell injury can be recognized by changes in the appearance of the nucleus and rupture of the cell membrane.

What are the two types of apoptosis?

The two main pathways of apoptosis are extrinsic and intrinsic as well as a perforin/granzyme pathway. Each requires specific triggering signals to begin an energy-dependent cascade of molecular events.

How are endogenous and exogenous factors related to carcinogenesis?

A number of new findings are relevant to our understanding and are discussed: 1) The endogenous rate of oxidative DNA damage is estimated to be 10(4) hits/cell/day in humans and an order of magnitude … Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis: endogenous and exogenous factors

How is mutagenesis related to endogenous DNA damage?

A number of new findings are relevant to our understanding and are discussed: 1) The endogenous rate of oxidative DNA damage is estimated to be 10(4) hits/cell/day in humans and an order of magnitude … The understanding of mutagenesis and its relation to carcinogenesis and aging is developing rapidly.

What causes damage to cells after an injury?

Depending on the nature and duration of injury, cells also may undergo necrosis, where the release of unprocessed cellular contents into the extracellular space can cause inflammation and creates further damage.

Which is an example of a free radical cell injury?

Free Radical Cell Injury: Insults due to Free Radicals generated by Reactive Oxygen Species Immune Cell Injury: Insults due to the immune system. Roughly covered in Immune Pathology Infectious Cell Injury: Microbial insult can occur via direct release of cellular toxins or intracellular infection