What is a visual reference?

For CAT II approaches, visual reference means being able to see to land (i.e., being able to conduct a hand-flown landing). For CAT III approaches, visual references means being able to see to verify aircraft position.

What is adequate visual reference?

ADEQUATE VIS REF (Adequate Visual Refer- ence. ) — Runway markings or runway lighting that provides the pilot with adequate visual reference to continuously identify the takeoff surface and maintain directional control throughout the takeoff run.

What is the difference between CAT II and CAT III?

The main difference between CAT II / CAT III operations is that Category II provides sufficient visual reference to permit a manual landing at DH, whereas Category III does not provide sufficient visual references and requires an automatic landing system.

What illusion may occur if an aircraft is flying into fog?

As you accelerate, your body may sense a false pitch-up motion (somatogravic illusion), and your natural reaction is to pitch the aircraft down. This is, for obvious reasons, not what you want to do at or near minimums on an instrument approach.

What does RVR 6 6 mean?

RVR 6/6/6 means all three transmissometers are reporting 600 RVR. Departing with 6/m/6 is allowed.

What is a precision runway?

Precision instrument runway means a runway having an existing instrument approach procedure utilizing an Instrument Landing System (ILS), or a Precision Approach Radar (PAR).

What does CAT II mean?

CAT II is defined as local-level electrical distribution, such as a standard mains socket and plug-in loads. This category includes household appliances, such as washing machines, and portable plug-in power tools.

What are the three types of spatial disorientation?

There are three types of spatial disorientation described.

  • Type-I. or, Unrecognized SD. Here pilot gets disoriented, but does not recognize it, in turn leading to incorrect or inadequate decisions, tragically resulting in an accident.
  • Type-II. or, Recognized SD.
  • Type-III. or, Incapacitating SD.

What is Oculogravic illusion?

an illusory displacement of an object that may occur when the direction of gravity changes (e.g., a line may appear to tilt in an aircraft during a roll).

What does controlling RVR mean?

— Controlling RVR means the reported values of one or more RVR reporting locations (touchdown, mid-point and stop-end) used to determine whether operating minima are or are not met. Where RVR is used, the controlling RVR is the touchdown RVR, unless otherwise specified by State criteria.

What is the minimum RVR for a visual approach?

The lowest authorized ILS minimums, with all required ground and airborne systems components operative, are: (a) Category I Decision Height ( DH ) 200 feet and Runway Visual Range ( RVR ) 2,400 feet (with touchdown zone and centerline lighting, RVR 1,800 feet); (b) Category II DH 100 feet and RVR 1,200 feet; (c) …