What is EDG in chemistry?

An electron donating group (EDG) or electron releasing group (ERG, Z in structural formulas) is an atom or functional group that donates some of its electron density into a conjugated π system via resonance (mesomerism) or inductive effects (or induction)—called +M or +I effects, respectively—thus making the π system …

What is a withdrawing group in chemistry?

Electron withdrawing group (EWG): An atom or group that draws electron density from neighboring atoms towards itself, usually by resonance or inductive effects.

What is EDG and EWG in chemistry?

EDG stands for electron donating groups while EWG stands for electron withdrawing groups. Both these are “electrophilic aromatic directing groups”.


Electron withdrawing groups have an atom with a slight positive or full positive charge directly attached to a benzene ring. Examples of electron withdrawing groups: -CF3, -COOH, -CN. Electron withdrawing groups only have one major product, the second substituent adds in the meta position.

Is NO2 EWG or EDG?

Substituents with pi bonds to electronegative atoms (e.g. -C=O, -NO2) adjacent to the pi system are electron withdrawing groups (EWG) – they deactivate the aromatic ring by decreasing the electron density on the ring through a resonance withdrawing effect.


Although chlorine is an electron withdrawing group, yet it is ortho-para directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions.

Is och3 EDG?

Yes, OCH3 which belongs to the is the electron-withdrawing group (methoxy group). Here, the oxygen (in OCH3) is more electronegative than carbon due to which it will show -I effect which is electron-withdrawing.

Is Cho an electron withdrawing group?

Inductive effects can be used to explain some aspects of organic reactions. For instance, electron-withdrawing groups, such as –NO2, –CN, –CHO, –COOH, and the halogens substituted on a benzene ring, reduce the electron density on the ring and decrease its susceptibility to further (electrophilic) substitution.

Is och2ch3 an electron withdrawing group?

Complete answer: Yes, the $OC{H_3}$ is an electron withdrawing group. The oxygen atom in the $OC{H_3}$ group is more electronegative than the carbon atom. Due to this reason, it will show the $ – I$ effect which is electron-withdrawing.

Is ch3 EDG or EWG?

2. Alkyl substituents (e.g. -CH3, -CH2CH3) are also electron donating groups – they activate the aromatic ring by increasing the electron density on the ring through an inductive donating effect.

Is oxygen an EWG or EDG?

The oxygen atom does indeed exert an electron-withdrawing inductive effect, but the lone pairs on the oxygen cause the exact opposite effect – the methoxy group is an electron-donating group by resonance.

What does EDG stand for in organic compounds?

EDG stands for electron donating groups. We call them “electron releasing groups (ERG)” as well. These are substituents in organic compounds that can donate some of its electron density into a conjugated pi system. This is done via resonance effect or inductive effect. This makes the pi electron system more nucleophilic.

Which is an example of an EDG group?

Some examples of EDG include phenoxide, primary, secondary and tertiary amines, ether, phenols, etc. What is EWG? EWG stands for electron withdrawing groups.

How are electron withdrawing groups ( EDG ) and EWG related?

Electron withdrawing groups (EWG) reduce electron density and reduce basicity. Resonance delocalizes electron density and so also decreases basicity (the electrons are less available to pick up a proton). Electron donating groups (EDG) add electron density and increase basicity.

Why does the EDG increase the reaction rate?

This is because the EDG increases the electron density of the benzene ring. However, benzene usually undergoes this type of electrophilic substitution reaction. Hence the EDG can increase the reaction rate. Therefore, we call these substituents as activating groups for aromatic rings.