What is FHH in pregnancy?
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH) result in different maternal and fetal complications in pregnancy. Calcium to creatinine clearance ratio (CCCR) is commonly used to help distinguish these two conditions.
Is pregnancy associated with hypercalcemia?
Hypercalcemia during pregnancy or after delivery is uncommon, and mostly associated with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). If unrecognized, it may increase maternal and fetal morbidity.
How is familial Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia treated?
As FHH is usually asymptomatic, treatment is not necessary. The hypercalcemia seen in FHH does not respond to diuretics or bisphosphonates. For those with constantly elevated serum calcium concentrations >14mg/dL or in those with NSHPT or relapsing pancreatitis, a total parathyroidectomy can be beneficial.
What is familial benign hypercalcemia?
Familial benign (hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is caused by a loss-of-function mutation of one allele of the gene for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). It causes hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hypermagnesemia. The parathyroid hormone level is usually within the reference range or is mildly elevated.
How rare is FHH?
The estimated prevalence of FHH is 1 in 78 000 compared with that of primary hyperparathyroidism of 1 in 1000. At least 234 mutations have been described in the CASR gene and resulting in phenotypes ranging from normocalcemia to pronounced hypercalcemia.
What is FHH?
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is an inherited disorder that causes abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) and low to moderate levels of calcium in urine (hypocalciuric). People with FHH usually do not have any symptoms and are often diagnosed by chance during routine bloodwork.
Is too much calcium bad during pregnancy?
Too much calcium may cause kidney stones and prevent your body from absorbing zinc and iron, which you need to stay healthy. While you’re pregnant, don’t take more than 2,500 mg of calcium each day (3,000 mg if you’re 18 or younger).
What if calcium is high during pregnancy?
High blood calcium during pregnancy can be very dangerous to the baby, resulting in miscarriage rates 5-10 times higher. Hyperparathyroidism during pregnancy usually demands a parathyroid operation to help prevent loss of the pregnancy.
What causes familial Hypocalciuric hypercalcemia?
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia is an unusual, usually benign condition that causes chronically elevated serum calcium and reduced calcium excretion. It is typically caused by an abnormal set-point for parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion in the calcium sensing receptor (CASR).
What is the normal level of calcium in blood how is it maintained?
In our bodies, calcium is a mineral that makes up our bones, as well as a salt that dissolves in our blood and regulates bodily function. At UCLA, the normal range for blood calcium level is 8.6 to 10.3 mg/dL. In order to maintain a normal calcium level, the body uses hormones to regulate blood calcium levels.
Can hypercalcemia be cured?
Treatment is aimed at the cause of hypercalcemia whenever possible. People with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) may need surgery to remove the abnormal parathyroid gland. This will cure the hypercalcemia. People with mild hypercalcemia may be able to monitor the condition closely over time without treatment.
What is familial Hypercalcemic Hypocalciuria?