What is insecticide resistance?

The term insecticide resistance is defined as the ability of an insect to withstand the effects of an insecticide by becoming resistant to its toxic effects by means of natural selection and mutations [8].

What is cross-resistance of insecticides?

Cross-resistance occurs when resistance to one insecticide confers resistance to another insecticide, even where the insect has not been exposed to the latter product.

What causes insecticide resistance?

When a pesticide is first used, a small proportion of the pest population may survive exposure to the material due to their distinct genetic makeup. Through this process of selection, the population gradually develops resistance to the pesticide.

What is an example of pesticide resistance?

A classic example is the house fly. Populations of this insect that became resistant to DDT in the 1950s, also exhibited resistance, with no previous exposure, to pyrethroid insecticides used decades later. DDT and pyrethroids have the same MOA. This phenomenon is known as cross-resistance.

How do you manage insecticide resistance?

Managing Pesticide Resistance

  1. Minimize Pesticide Use. Minimizing pesticide use is fundamental to pesticide resistance management.
  2. Avoid Tank Mixes. Avoid combinations (mixes) of two insecticides or miticides in a single application.
  3. Avoid Persistent Chemicals.
  4. Use Long-term Rotations.

Why is insecticide resistance important?

Worldwide, more than 600 species of pests have developed some level of pesticide resistance. If resistance to a particular pesticide or “family” of pesticides evolves, these products can no longer be effectively used thereby reducing the options available for pest management.

What is insecticide resistance in entomology?

Insecticide resistance is defined as the increased ability of an insect to withstand or overcome the effects of one or more insecticides, in our case, pyrethroids, by resisting the toxic effects of insecticides through natural selection and mutation.

What causes insecticide resistance in mosquitoes?

Insecticide resistance emerges from multi-generational selection from exposure to sublethal doses of insecticides. Alleles for IR are selected when the population of insects is exposed to insecticides, ultimately fixing the alleles in the insect population, and resulting in the failure of chemical-based control.

How can we prevent insect resistance?

How is insecticide resistance An example of natural selection?

Pesticide resistance is an example of natural selection because the insects who survive the initial use due to a gene that enable them to resist the attack pass on the gene for pesticide resistance to their offspring. In each generation, the percentage of pesticide resistant insects increases.

What insects are resistant to insecticides?

Two of the most striking examples of resistant insect species are the Colorado potato beetle and the diamondback moth, both of which have developed extensive populations resistant to all synthetic insecticides registered for use against them, as well as biological insecticides like Bacillus thuringiensis (see Results) …

What is the most common form of insecticide resistance?

Metabolic resistance
Metabolic resistance is the most common mechanism and often presents the greatest challenge. Insects use their internal enzyme systems to break down insecticides. Resistant strains may possess higher levels or more efficient forms of these enzymes.

What causes an insect to become resistant to one insecticide?

This can happen if one insecticide is used until insects display resistance and then another is used and the insect population becomes resistant to that one, and so on. Localized populations of Colorado potato beetle are notorious for multiple resistance to more than 50 insecticides with various modes of action.

How does the European Union help with insecticide resistance?

Major agrochemical companies work jointly to publicize resistance through the global Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC). In the European Union, resistance risk assessment is an integral part of approving new products and maximizing their effective lifespan. Insecticide Resistance..

How is pesticide resistance used in crop management?

In this presentation we will explore what pesticide resistance is and how it occurs.  We will also look at resistance to insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides, and how to manage resistance so pesticides can continue to be used as crop management tools in the future.

How does natural selection contribute to insecticide resistance?

Natural selection by an insecticide allows some initially very rare, naturally occurring, pre-adapted insects with resistance genes to survive and pass the resistance trait on to their offspring.