What is seen in endodermal sinus tumor?

Diagnosis. The histology of EST is variable, but usually includes malignant endodermal cells. These cells secrete alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which can be detected in tumor tissue, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and, in the rare case of fetal EST, in amniotic fluid.

Is yolk sac tumors curable?

Yolk sac tumors can be cured if treated in the early stages. Patients need to be able to do self-examination and need to be educated about the successful management of the early disease.

Is yolk sac tumor a germ cell tumor?

Yolk sac tumors are the most common malignant germ cell tumor in children. Also called endodermal sinus tumor.

What is granulosa cell tumor?

Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary is a rare type of ovarian cancer that accounts for approximately 2% of all ovarian tumors. This type of tumor is known as a sex cord-stromal tumor and usually occurs in adults. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary cause higher than normal levels of estrogen in a woman’s body.

Is endodermal sinus tumor malignant?

Endodermal sinus tumors are the most common malignant germ cell tumor in children. Also called yolk sac tumor.

Can germ cell tumors spread?

Germ cell tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. The most common sites for metastasis are the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and central nervous system. Rarely, germ cell tumors can spread to the bone, bone marrow, and other organs.

How rare is a yolk sac tumor?

Only 1~2% of OGCTs are malignant called malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (MOGCTs) and constitute around 3–5% of all malignant ovarian neoplasms (2). Yolk sac tumor (YST) or endodermal primitive tumor accounting the second most common tumor in MOGCTs (3) is rare and typically occurs in gonads (4, 5).

What is a yolk sac on an ultrasound?

Ultrasound. yolk sac appears as a circular thick walled echogenic structure with an anechoic center within the gestational sac, but outside the amniotic membrane. when at 5.0 to 5.5 weeks, it can sometimes be seen as two parallel lines rather than a discrete circle.

What is testicular yolk sac tumors?

Testicular yolk sac tumours, also known as endodermal sinus tumour of the testis, is the most common childhood testicular tumour (80%), with most cases occurring before the age of two years 1. In adults, pure yolk sac tumour is extremely rare, however mixed germ cell tumour is commonly seen.

Is granulosa cell tumor malignant?

GCTs are thought to be tumors of low malignant potential. Most of these tumors follow a benign course, with only a small percentage showing aggressive behavior, perhaps due to early stage at diagnosis. Metastatic disease can involve any organ system, although tumor growth usually is confined to the abdomen and pelvis.

Where does the endodermal sinus tumor come from?

Endodermal sinus tumors are thought to originate from germ cells that differentiate into the extra embryonal yolk sac because the tumor structure is similar to that found in the endodermal sinuses of the rat yolk sac.

How is Est used to diagnose sinus tumors?

This is because EST often occurs as small “malignant foci” within a larger tumor, usually teratoma, and biopsy is a sampling method; biopsy of the tumor may reveal only teratoma, whereas elevated AFP reveals that EST is also present. GATA-4, a transcription factor, also may be useful in the diagnosis of EST.

Is there a high sensitivity marker for endometrial cancer?

No tumor markers with high sensitivity and high specificity for endometrial cancer are known at present, although CA-125 is often used in clinical practice.

How is serum AFP used to diagnose endodermal sinus tumors?

From a practical point of view, serum AFP determination is considered to be a useful diagnostic tool in patients who have endodermal sinus tumors and should be considered an ideal tumor marker. It can be useful when monitoring the results of therapy and for detecting metastasis and recurrences after therapy.