What is TBM meningitis?

Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is a form of meningitis characterized by inflammation of the membranes (meninges) around the brain or spinal cord and caused by a specific bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In TBM, the disorder develops gradually.

How do you contract tuberculosis meningitis?

How TB meningitis is caused. Tuberculosis bacteria enter the body by droplet inhalation i.e. breathing in bacteria from the coughing/sneezing of an infected person.

Is TB meningitis fatal?

Conclusion. Meningitis is the most deadly form of TB, particularly in persons coinfected with HIV. Early diagnosis and treatment can dramatically reduce the high mortality associated with this disease.

Is TBM contagious?

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, airborne disease that typically affects the lungs.

How long does it take to recover from TB meningitis?

Treatment generally lasts for about a year, involving intensive treatment with three or four antibiotics at first and continually with two antibiotics for about 10 more months. TB meningitis tends to be more severe than other forms of meningitis.

What are the stages of TB meningitis?

TB meningitis is often described in three stages, but patients don’t necessarily progress from one stage to the next in an orderly fashion. Stage 1 is considered alert, stage 2 is lethargy, and stage 3 is coma.

How is TB meningitis treated?

The best antimicrobial agents in the treatment of TBM include isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF), pyrazinamide (PZA), and streptomycin (SM), all of which enter cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) readily in the presence of meningeal inflammation. Ethambutol is less effective in meningeal disease unless used in high doses.

How does TB meningitis cause stroke?

The role of cytokines especially tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metaloproteineases (MMPs) in damaging the blood brain barrier, attracting leucocytes and release of vasoactive autocoids have been suggested. The prothrombotic state may also contribute to stroke in TBM.

How long is TB meningitis contagious?

When the patient stops secreting or producing infectious agents is when meningitis is no longer contagious. Viral caused meningitis may be contagious from three days after infection starts to about 10 days after the symptoms develop.

How do adults get meningitis?

Common bacteria or viruses that can cause meningitis can spread through coughing, sneezing, kissing, or sharing eating utensils, a toothbrush or a cigarette.

How long do you treat TB meningitis?

The duration of conventional therapy is 6-9 months, although some investigators still recommend as many as 24 months of therapy. No guidelines exist as to the components and duration of treatment in the case of multidrug-resistant TBM.

Is TB meningitis rare?

Tuberculous meningitis is very rare in the United States. Most cases are people who traveled to the United States from other countries where TB is common. People who have the following have a higher chance of developing tuberculous meningitis: HIV/AIDS.