What are methods of therapeutic drug monitoring?
The monitoring of therapeutic drugs involves measuring drug concentrations in plasma, serum or blood. This information is used to individualise dosage so that drug concentrations can be maintained within a target range.
What is therapeutic drug monitoring PPT?
It involves the use of drug concentration measurements in body fluids as an aid to the management of drug therapy for the cure, alleviation or prevention of disease. TDM enables the assessment of the efficacy and safety of a particular medication in a variety of clinical settings.
What are all the indicators of therapeutic drug monitoring?
Process for reaching dosage decisions with therapeutic drug monitoring. The indications for drug monitoring have widened to include efficacy, compliance, drug-drug interactions, toxicity avoidance, and therapy cessation monitoring [18, 19] (Table 1).
What are indications of TDM?
The indications for TDM are suspected dose-related toxicity, suspected noncompliance, acute overdose, chronic abuse, reduced kidney or liver function, potential interaction with other drugs, evaluation of absorption, and optimalization of treatment.
What drugs are commonly monitored?
Monitored Drugs by Category
|Immunosuppressants||Cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine|
|Anti-cancer drugs||Methotrexate, all cytotoxic agents|
|Psychiatric drugs||Lithium, valproic acid, some antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, doxepin, desipramine)|
What are therapeutic drugs and examples?
What is it used for?
|Types of Medicine||Medicine Names|
|Antibiotics||vancomycin, gentamycin, amakacin|
|Heart drugs||digoxin, procainamide, lidocaine|
|Anti-seizure drugs||phenytoin, phenobarbital|
|Drugs treat autoimmune diseases||cyclosporine, tacrolimus|
What is the purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring?
What is therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)? Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is testing that measures the amount of certain medicines in your blood. It is done to make sure the amount of medicine you are taking is both safe and effective. Most medicines can be dosed correctly without special testing.
Which drugs do not require therapeutic drug monitoring?
Examples of drugs that do not require monitoring include high blood pressure (hypertension) medications and many of the antibiotics given to treat bacterial infections.
What do you mean by therapeutic drug monitoring?
Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement of specific drugs and/or their breakdown products (metabolites) at timed intervals to maintain a relatively constant concentration of the medication in the blood.
What is the basic need of therapeutic drug monitoring?
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is testing that measures the amount of certain medicines in your blood. It is done to make sure the amount of medicine you are taking is both safe and effective. Most medicines can be dosed correctly without special testing.
What is the purpose of TDM?
Which drugs are suitable for TDM?
TDM is suggested for: amikacin, carbamazepine, cyclosporin, digoxin, gentamicin, lithium, methotrexate, phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproic acid and vancomycin (see Table 1.3.).
What is the definition of therapeutic drug monitoring?
2. INTRODUCTION • Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is generally defined as the clinical laboratory measurement of a chemical parameter that, with appropriate medical interpretation, will directly influence drug prescribing procedures.
When to use single drop microextraction ( SDME )?
Single-drop microextraction (SDME) In this technique, extraction solvent has the form of one drop (1 -8 μL) hence called single-drop microextraction. The SDME method can be used for liquid and gaseous samples. After extraction, the micro drop is retracted back into the syringe and transferred for further analysis.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of microextraction?
Advantages low cost operation simplicity high recovery high enrichment factor very short extraction time Disadvantages Low selectivity Requires the use of three solvents Limited solvent choice Requires centrifugation 21 22.
How does dispersive liquid microextraction ( dllme ) work?
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) This technique uses μL volume of extraction solvent along with a few mL of dispersive solvents. A cloudy solution is formed when an appropriate mixture of extraction and dispersive solvents is injected into an aqueous sample containing the analytes of interest.