What is TMPRSS2 ERG?
TMPRSS2 is a prostate-specific and androgen-response gene that encodes a protein belonging to the serine protease family, which functions in prostate carcinogenesis and relies on gene fusion with ETS transcription factors, such as ERG and ETV1 (8).
What is the function of TMPRSS2?
Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) is a cell surface protein primarily expressed by endothelial cells across the respiratory and digestive tracts. As a serine protease, it is involved in the cleaving peptide bonds of proteins that have serine as the nucleophilic amino acid within the active site.
What does ERG gene stand for?
ERG (ETS-related gene) is an oncogene. ERG is a member of the ETS (erythroblast transformation-specific) family of transcription factors. The ERG gene encodes for a protein, also called ERG, that functions as a transcriptional regulator.
Where in the cell is TMPRSS2 localized?
The TMPRSS2 gene is located on chromosome 21 and contains four distinct domains, including a transmembrane region, indicating that it is expressed on the cell surface. Northern analysis demonstrated that TMPRSS2 is highly expressed in prostate epithelium relative to other normal human tissues.
What are TMPRSS2 inhibitors?
At cellular level, the trans-membrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) primes the spike protein of human coronaviruses and facilitates cell entry and infection. Camostat mesilate is an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and has been shown to be a potent antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and against SARS-CoV-1 in vivo (mice).
Is TMPRSS2 a Furin?
TMPRSS2 is a type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) that is widely expressed in epithelial cells of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tract (11, 12). The proprotein convertase furin is a type I transmembrane protein that is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic tissues and cells.
What do oncogenes cause?
Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that help cells grow. An oncogene is any gene that causes cancer. One of the main characteristics of cancer is uncontrolled cell growth.
What is Camostat Mesilate?
Camostat Mesilate is a potent serine protease inhibitor. Utilizing research on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the closely related SARS-CoV-2 cell entry mechanism, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry can be blocked by camostat mesilate.
How do Serine Protease inhibitors work?
Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, comprise a family of proteins that antagonize the activity of serine proteases. In this mechanism, the serpin presents a substrate-mimicking peptide sequence—the reactive center loop—to its target serine protease.
When does furin cleavage occur?
Depending on the sequence of spike at the S1/S2 junction, the cleavage can occur: (1) during trafficking in the producer cell by host furin-like enzymes; (2) by serine proteases such as the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), at the cell surface during attachment; or (3) by cathepsin proteases in the late …
Do we all have oncogenes?
Everyone has proto-oncogenes in their body. In fact, proto-oncogenes are necessary for our survival. Proto-oncogenes only cause cancer when a mutation occurs in the gene that results in the gene being permanently turned on. This is called a gain-of-function mutation.
Which is a gene associated with TMPRSS2 fusion transcript?
Gene expression analysis identifies genes associated with SARS-COV-2 receptors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in normal human lung tissues. Detection of TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Transcript in Biopsy Specimen of Prostate Cancer Patients: A Single Centre Experience.
Is there a link between prostate cancer and TMPRSS2?
Loss of the adhesion molecule CEACAM1 is associated with early biochemical recurrence in TMPRSS2:ERG fusion-positive prostate cancers. The association of diabetes with risk of prostate cancer defined by clinical and molecular features.
What is the role of TMPRSS2 in head and neck cancer?
TMPRSS2, a SARS-CoV-2 internalization protease is downregulated in head and neck cancer patients. DNA Damage Promotes TMPRSS2-ERG Oncoprotein Destruction and Prostate Cancer Suppression via Signaling Converged by GSK3beta and WEE1. COVID-19 and the male susceptibility: the role of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and the androgen receptor.
Where are ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expressed in the human body?
ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed on the human ocular surface, suggesting susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Single-cell expression profiles of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 reveals potential vertical transmission and fetus infection of SARS-CoV-2.